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Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a mental health condition that’s triggered by a terrifying event — either experiencing it or witnessing it. Symptoms may include flashbacks, nightmares and severe anxiety, as well as uncontrollable thoughts about the event.
Post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms may start within one month of a traumatic event, but sometimes symptoms may not appear until years after the event. These symptoms cause significant problems in social or work situations and in relationships. They can also interfere with your ability to go about your normal daily tasks.
- Being easily startled or frightened
- Always being on guard for danger
- Negative thoughts about yourselfor the world
- Hopelessness about the future
- Trying to avoid thinking or talking about the traumatic event
- Recurrent, unwanted distressing memories
If you have a mood disorder, your general emotional state or mood is distorted or inconsistent with your circumstances and interferes with your ability to function.
- Major depressive disorder
- Bipolar disorder
- Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)
- Cyclothymic disorder
- Premenstrual dysphoric disorder
- Persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia)
- Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
- Depression related to medical illness
- Depression induced by substance use or medication
For most people, mood disorders can be successfully treated with medications and talk therapy (psychotherapy).
Drug addiction, also called substance use disorder, is a disease that affects a person’s brain and behavior and leads to an inability to control the use of a legal or illegal drug or medication.
- Feeling that you have to use
- Having intense urges
- Drug tolerance
- Failing to stop
Signs someone could be using
- Problems at school or work
- Physical health issues
- Neglected appearance
- Changes in behavior
- Money issues
Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn’t worth living.
Although depression may occur only once during your life, people typically have multiple episodes. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include:
- Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness
- Angry outbursts
- Loss of interest
- Sleep disturbances
- Tiredness and lack of energy
- Reduced appetite and weight loss
- Frequent or recurrent negative thoughts
People with anxiety disorders frequently have intense, excessive and persistent worry and fear about everyday situations. Often, anxiety disorders involve repeated episodes of sudden feelings of intense anxiety and panic attacks.
Common anxiety signs and symptoms include:
- Feeling nervous, restless or tense
- Having a sense of impending danger, panic or doom
- Having an increased heart rate
- Breathing rapidly (hyperventilation)
Types of anxiety disorders
- Generalized anxiety disorder
- Panic disorder
- Separation anxiety disorder
- Social anxiety disorder (social phobia)
Stress that’s left unchecked can contribute to many health problems, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, obesity and diabetes.
Act to manage stress
If you have stress symptoms, taking steps to manage your stress can have many health benefits. Explore stress management strategies, such as:
- Getting regular physical activity
- Practicing relaxation techniques
- Keeping a sense of humor
- Spending time with family and friends
- Setting aside time for hobbies
When to seek help
If you're not sure if stress is the cause or if you've taken steps to control your stress but your symptoms continue, see your doctor. Your healthcare provider may want to check for other potential causes.
A sleep disorder can affect your overall health, safety and quality of life. Sleep deprivation can affect your ability to drive safely and increase your risk of other health problems.
Some common types of sleep disorders include:
- Insomnia - in which you have difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep throughout the night.
- Sleep apnea - in which you experience abnormal patterns in breathing while you are asleep. There are several types of sleep apnea.
- Restless legs syndrome (RLS) - a type of sleep movement disorder. Restless legs syndrome, also called Willis-Ekbom disease, causes an uncomfortable sensation and an urge to move the legs while you try to fall asleep.
- Narcolepsy - a condition characterized by extreme sleepiness during the day and falling asleep suddenly during the day.
Psychosis and Psychotic Disorders
Detachment from reality — such as delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized thinking and speech. The most notable example is schizophrenia.
- A drop in grades or job performance.
- Trouble thinking clearly or concentrating.
- Suspiciousness or unease around others.
- Lack of self-care or hygiene.
- Spending more time alone than usual.
- Stronger emotions than situations call for.
- No emotions at all.
Doctors don’t know exactly what causes psychosis, but some known risk factors include:
- Injuries and illnesses
A mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead to unstable relationships, poor work or school performance, low self-esteem, and other problems.
The primary features of ADHD include inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior. ADHD symptoms start before age 12, and in some children, they're noticeable as early as 3 years of age. ADHD symptoms can be mild, moderate or severe, and they may continue into adulthood.
There are three subtypes of ADHD:
- Predominantly inattentive. The majority of symptoms fall under inattention.
- Predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. The majority of symptoms are hyperactive and impulsive.
- Combined. This is a mix of inattentive symptoms and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms.